Showing posts with label Artemis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Artemis. Show all posts

Sunday, 16 July 2017

Accession : Witches




Take time to pause; and, by the next new moon--
The sealing-day betwixt my love and me,
For everlasting bond of fellowship--
Upon that day either prepare to die
For disobedience to your father's will,
Or else to wed Demetrius, as he would;
Or on Diana's altar to protest
For aye austerity and single life.



Diana 
The Latin designation, popular in Europe since the Renaissance, for the goddess of the hunt, in Greek Artemis, who by this time had only allegorical or symbolic meaning. Statues of Diana with the crescent-MOON in her hair, bow and ARROWS in her hand, accompanied by hunting DOGS, adorned especially the gardens of the baroque period.

On occasion, the legendary scene is represented in which ACTEON, having observed the chaste Diana bathing, is transformed into a stag (see DEER) and tom apart by his own hunting dogs. 

The crescent is explained by the fact that the early Italian goddess Diana was originally the goddess of the Moon and only later were the myths relating to Artemis, the mistress of the animals (potnia theron), carried over to her.

Diana seems to have lived on not only in garden sculpture but also as a mythical figure in Italy.




The American mythologist Charles G. Leland (1824-1903) reported in his book Arcadia (1899) about a cult of "WITCHES" (streghe) who revered Diana and appealed to her as a great goddess: "Diana! Diana! Diana! Queen of all magicians and of the dark night, the stars, the moon, all fate and fortune! You, mistress of ebb and flow, who shine at night upon the sea, throwing your light upon the water! You, commander of the sea, in your boat like a half-moon. . ." (from a hymn appearing in a legend in which Melampus has his mother ask that he be given the art of understanding the language of SNAKES). 





Enter PUCK
OBERON
[Advancing] Welcome, good Robin.
See'st thou this sweet sight?
Her dotage now I do begin to pity:
For, meeting her of late behind the wood,
Seeking sweet favours from this hateful fool,
I did upbraid her and fall out with her;
For she his hairy temples then had rounded
With a coronet of fresh and fragrant flowers
;
And that same dew, which sometime on the buds
Was wont to swell like round and orient pearls,
Stood now within the pretty flowerets' eyes
Like tears that did their own disgrace bewail.
When I had at my pleasure taunted her
And she in mild terms begg'd my patience,
I then did ask of her her changeling child;
Which straight she gave me, and her fairy sent
To bear him to my bower in fairy land.
And now I have the boy, I will undo
This hateful imperfection of her eyes:

And, gentle Puck, take this transformed scalp
From off the head of this Athenian swain;
That, he awaking when the other do,
May all to Athens back again repair
And think no more of this night's accidents
But as the fierce vexation of a dream.
But first I will release the fairy queen.
Be as thou wast wont to be;
See as thou wast wont to see:
Dian's bud o'er Cupid's flower
Hath such force and blessed power.
Now, my Titania; wake you, my sweet queen.
TITANIA
My Oberon! what visions have I seen!
Methought I was enamour'd of an ass.
OBERON
There lies your love.
TITANIA
How came these things to pass?
O, how mine eyes do loathe his visage now!
OBERON
Silence awhile. Robin, take off this head.
Titania, music call; and strike more dead
Than common sleep of all these five the sense.
TITANIA
Music, ho! music, such as charmeth sleep!
Music, still
PUCK
Now, when thou wakest, with thine
own fool's eyes peep.
OBERON
Sound, music! Come, my queen, take hands with me,
And rock the ground whereon these sleepers be.
Now thou and I are new in amity,
And will to-morrow midnight solemnly
Dance in Duke Theseus' house triumphantly,
And bless it to all fair prosperity:
There shall the pairs of faithful lovers be
Wedded, with Theseus, all in jollity.
PUCK
Fairy king, attend, and mark:
I do hear the morning lark.
OBERON
Then, my queen, in silence sad,
Trip we after the night's shade:
We the globe can compass soon,
Swifter than the wandering moon.
TITANIA
Come, my lord, and in our flight
Tell me how it came this night
That I sleeping here was found
With these mortals on the ground.

Exeunt

Acteon


Diana 
The Latin designation, popular in Europe since the Renaissance, for the goddess of the hunt, in Greek Artemis, who by this time had only allegorical or symbolic meaning. Statues of Diana with the crescent-MOON in her hair, bow and ARROWS in her hand, accompanied by hunting DOGS, adorned especially the gardens of the baroque period.

On occasion, the legendary scene is represented in which ACTEON, having observed the chaste Diana bathing, is transformed into a stag (see DEER) and torn apart by his own hunting dogs. 



Saturday, 15 July 2017

Accession : A Female Deer

doe or hind 
A female DEER, stands in many myths for the female animal in general, which can have a demonic character, despite what we see as the gentleness of the doe. 


The second of the Labors of Hercules was to capture the Hind of Ceryneia. 




The chariot of Artemis (in Latin myth DIANA), the goddess of the hunt, was pulled by does

The animal is also important in Asiatic myth. In the Ural-Altaic regions she was the supernatural ancestor of several peoples (compare TOTEM).

The Hungarian myth of origlls of a fleeing doe who lured two primeval hunter into a swamp, where she transformed herself into two princesses who coupled with the hunters, becoming the progenitors of the Huns and the Magyars, respectively. 

Similarly, the family tree of Genghis Khan shows a doe and a WOLF as his progenitors. 

A doe was said to have rescued fleeing Frankish warriors by showing them a point at which they could ford the Main River. 

In many old European fairy tales young women and girls are transformed into does. 

In one ancient Chinese legend a doe gives birth to a human child, a girl who is later reared by a man; but when she dies her body disappears, revealing her supernatural origins. 

In prehistoric rites of passage does may have symbolized female initiates.

 In Mayan mythology of the Yucatan, Zip is a god of the hunt; under the name A Uuc Yol Zip he is portrayed in ancient hieroglyphic writings as a horned man having intercourse with a doe.

Diana - The Accursed Hunteress


Diana Emphasises the Monstrous/Terrible aspect of Woman’s nature. 


Nevertheless, because of her vows of virginity, she was endowed with a morally GOOD character.




Diana - The goddess of woods, related to nature in general and to fertility and wild animals.

She bears the Greek name of Hecate, meaning ‘She who succeeds from afar’, and she is therefore linked with the ‘Accursed Hunter’ (such as Wotan). 


Accompanied by dogs, she becomes a night-huntress, in turn linked with the demons of chthonian cults.

It has been pointed out that her characteristics vary with the phases of the moon: Diana, Jana, Janus. 


This is why some mythological and emblematic designs show her as Hecate with three heads, a famous, triform symbol which—like the trident or the three heads of Cerberus—is the infernal inversion of the trinitarian form of the upper world. 



According to Diel, these threefold symbolic forms of the underworld allude also to the perversion of the three essential ‘urges’ of man: 




Conservation
Reproduction and 
Spiritual Evolution


If this is so, then Diana emphasizes the terrible aspect of Woman’s nature. 




Nevertheless, because of her vows of virginity, she was endowed with a morally good character as opposed to that of Venus, as can be seen in the Hippolytus of Euripides.



Diana 
The Latin designation, popular in Europe since the Renaissance, for the goddess of the hunt, in Greek Artemis, who by this time had only allegorical or symbolic meaning. Statues of Diana with the crescent-MOON in her hair, bow and ARROWS in her hand, accompanied by hunting DOGS, adorned especially the gardens of the baroque period. 

On occasion, the legendary scene is represented in which ACTEON, having observed the chaste Diana bathing, is transformed into a stag (see DEER) and tom apart by his own hunting dogs. 

The crescent is explained by the fact that the early Italian goddess Diana was originally the goddess of the Moon and only later were the myths relating to Artemis, the mistress of the animals (potnia theron), carried over to her. 

Diana seems to have lived on not only in garden sculpture but also as a mythical figure in Italy. 

The American mythologist Charles G. Leland (1824-1903) reported in his book Arcadia (1899) about a cult of "WITCHES" (streghe) who revered Diana and appealed to her as a great goddess: "Diana! Diana! Diana! Queen of all magicians and of the dark night, the stars, the moon, all fate and fortune! You, mistress of ebb and flow, who shine at night upon the sea, throwing your light upon the water! You, commander of the sea, in your boat like a half-moon. . ." (from a hymn appearing in a legend in which Melampus has his mother ask that he be given the art of understanding the language of SNAKES). 

Diana's mother 'called her a whore for sleeping with Muslim men'

P17:06, 14 Jan 2008, updated 13:04, 15 Jan 2008
The mother of Princess Diana called her a 'whore' for dating Muslim men, her inquest has heard.
Frances Shand Kydd made the 'disgraceful' comment when she discovered her daughter was in a serious relationship with heart surgeon Hasnat Khan.
The pair did not speak again before Diana died two months later, according to her butler Paul Burrell. 
The sensational revelation came on the day that he told how:
 • Diana was planning to marry Dr Khan;

Her romance with Dodi Fayed was just a '30-day' fling;


Prince Philip did write 'cutting' letters to the princess but would not have ordered her murder;


The [So-Called] Queen warned him of mysterious 'powers at work' - but he had no idea what she meant.

The 49-year-old former butler revealed that Diana's bitter conversation with her mother happened in June 1997, during the last throes of her relationship with Dr Khan and just two months before she and Dodi died in Paris.
Mr Burrell told the High Court that the princess had held up the phone as they sat together on the sofa of her Kensington Palace apartment so that he could hear her mother's rant.
He said Mrs Shand Kydd, who died in 2004, was a 'formidable lady' who often expressed herself 'in extremely forceful terms about Diana's consorts, especially if they were Muslim'.
Asked to describe what he had heard on that particular day, he hesitated.
It was only when the coroner, Lord Justice Scott Baker, interjected, saying: 'This is relevant', that Mr Burrell replied: 'Well, she called the princess a whore and she said that she was messing around with f****** Muslim men and she was disgraceful. She said some very nasty things.'
Mohamed Al Fayed's barrister, Michael Mansfield, asked: 'It was shortly after one of these telephone calls that the princess decided she did not want to talk to her mother again?'
'Yes,' Mr Burrell confirmed. 

Mrs Shand Kydd went through a bitter divorce from Diana's father Earl Spencer, after she left him for wallpaper tycoon Peter Shand Kydd. 
She endured a rocky relationship with her youngest daughter and had no idea how serious Diana's relationship with Dr Khan was.
In fact the princess had been planning to marry the man she described as her 'soul mate' just months before she embarked on her high-profile relationship with Dodi Fayed.
Mr Burrell told the court that he discussed the matter in confidence with Father Anthony Parsons, a priest from a Catholic church near Kensington Palace, without Dr Khan's knowledge.
But the pair split up the month before Diana died in a clandestine night-time meeting in Battersea Park, South London.
As he took the stand yesterday, Mr Burrell appeared nervous. His voice was barely audible and he failed even to remember the date of his wedding with wife Maria, who worked as Diana's dresser.
As he went on, however, he gave a voluble account of his time with Diana and her troubled personal relationships, describing Dr Khan as the love of Diana's life.
'The princess said that this was her soul mate, this was the man she loved more then any other and it was a very deep spiritual relationship,' he said.
'I witnessed it at first hand and they were very much in love.'  The couple met in 1995 when the princess visited a friend at the Royal Brompton Hospital in West London, where Dr Khan was working as a heart surgeon. 
At first they held secret rendezvous, with Mr Burrell smuggling the consultant into Kensington Palace in the boot of his car.
But towards the end of their two-year relationship Dr Khan had, Mr Burrell said, become part of the 'fixtures and fittings' at Kensington Palace.
There were even plans to prepare some of the rooms in Diana's apartment for her lover. Dr Khan's identity was also well known in the upper echelons of the Royal Family.
Princess Margaret - Diana's closest neighbour at the palace - was, in particular, aware of all her 'clandestine comings and goings'.
Most importantly, the surgeon had been introduced to Diana's sons with the intention of paving the way for something more permanent.
However the couple split during an emotional rendezvous shortly after Diana's 36th birthday in July 1997.
'I remember it coming to an abrupt halt because it happened in a park, in Battersea Park, late at night, and the princess came home that night very distressed and said that she had had it. She had tried everything she could to bring this man out into the public spotlight and he was having none of it.
'He did not want to become a public name, he didn't want to become known, and they had reached a stalemate situation.'
Later the butler had a meeting with Dr Khan.
'He explained to me one day he worked very hard and had come from nothing to achieve what he had and had now become an eminent heart surgeon. 'He was achieving what always dreamed of and wasn't prepared to put that on hold for the princess.'
Days later, a distraught Diana flew off with Mohamed Al Fayed on holiday, where she met his playboy son for the first time.
While she quickly became fond of Dodi, the relationship was dismissed by Mr Burrell yesterday as a '30-day' fling.
Diana's highly public romance, he insisted, was part of her attempt to 'get back' at Dr Khan.
Asked why she would want to humiliate a man she had cared for so much, Mr Burrell replied: 'I don't think that a relationship that lasted for 18 months was gone overnight.
'The princess was still burning a candle for Mr Khan. She was still in love with him.'
Mr Burrell was dressed in an ice-blue shirt and tie, his face tanned from the sun in Florida, where he has bought a luxury home on the back of two tell-all books about his former employer.
He was subsequently accused by her sons, William and Harry, of a 'cold and overt betrayal' by bringing out the books. He has also been a contestant on I'm A Celebrity ... Get Me Out Of Here!

Friday, 14 July 2017

Accession : Hunting with Hounds

The Big Man: 
Rapists and murders may be the victims according to you, but I, 

I call them dogs

And if they're lapping up their own vomit, the only way to stop them is with a lash. 


Grace: 
But dogs only obey their own nature, so why shouldn't we forgive them? 

The Big Man: 
Dogs can be taught many useful things, but not, 

NOT 

if we forgive them every time they obey their own nature.


Do you know what 'Nemesis' means? 

A righteous infliction of retribution manifested by an appropriate agent, personified in this case by a 'orrible cunt : -

Me.

Lyons said she looked like an angel, serene, with a smile on her face and only a small cut on her forehead. 

The photograph has never been published.

Diana 
The Latin designation, popular in Europe since the Renaissance, for the goddess of the hunt, in Greek Artemis, who by this time had only allegorical or symbolic meaning. Statues of Diana with the crescent-MOON in her hair, bow and ARROWS in her hand, accompanied by hunting DOGS, adorned especially the gardens of the baroque period.

On occasion, the legendary scene is represented in which ACTEON, having observed the chaste Diana bathing, is transformed into a stag (see DEER) and tom apart by his own hunting dogs. 



*************
Exclusive extract from Mr Paparazzi in tomorrow's Good Weekend magazine, free with The Sydney Morning Herald.
**************
AN Australian paparazzo who has powerful images of the Princess of Wales close to death will give evidence next week at her inquest.

Darryn Lyons, the owner of one of the world's largest paparazzi photo agencies, will give evidence on Tuesday by video link from a barrister's chambers in Phillip Street, Sydney, accompanied by his British lawyer, Hugh Carlisle, QC.

The original images were confiscated by police in France and London in 1997 but Lyons has copies and has described in his new autobiography, Mr Paparazzi, one particularly strong image of the princess just before she died.

Lyons said she looked like an angel, serene, with a smile on her face and only a small cut on her forehead. The photograph has never been published.

It contrasts with photographs taken of her companion, Dodi Al Fayed. The car crash that killed them in Paris in 1997 was so violent that Fayed's jeans had been ripped off. His chest was opened as doctors had tried to resuscitate him with electric paddles and open heart massage. The images are unprintable.

Lyons believes he has been called as a witness because his London office was broken into soon after the accident. He says nothing was taken and that he had handed over all the images that had been sent to him in London on the night of the crash by his Paris agent, Laurent Sola.

One of two photographers working for Mr Sola appears to be the first person at the crash scene.

Lyons writes that David Kerr and the other photographer, Fabrice Chassery, were driving cars and lost the Mercedes driven by Henri Paul as it left the Ritz Hotel. Paparazzi on scooters roared on ahead, chasing the car, but Kerr and Chassery agreed to call it a night.

Lyons says Kerr headed home via the Alma tunnel and came across the crash scene, where he said there were no witnesses. He estimated the accident had occurred two minutes before.

Kerr parked outside the tunnel then returned to find four other photographers who had been riding on scooters.

(Kerr and Chassery subsequently sued the British television network Channel 4 for "stealing" some of their pictures for use in The Witnesses In The Tunnel, a documentary which was screened in Britain last year. They said the images were held by police and copies must have been stolen.)

Lyons said he believed early news reports that the princess was only concussed and had a broken arm. He alerted the News Of The World that he had a photo of her and says he was offered £250,000.

He writes that the then editor of the paper, Phil Hall, who he says was in contact with its proprietor, Rupert Murdoch, then called Lyons to say the princess was dead and the paper was pulling out of the deal.

Lyons says the paper claimed the image never got to the printing process, "but I have it on good authority that thousands of newspapers were pulped".

In 1998, Lyons says, he was approached by someone who said they were acting for The New Yorker, offering $3 million to $4 million for the crash photos. He said he would never sell any of them.


These details of the crash and its aftermath are told in his autobiography, Mr Paparazzi, to be published on Monday by Viking.

Lyons yesterday visited Geelong, which he left 20 years ago to make a career in London. He worked for The Daily Mail before establishing his own photo agency, Big Pictures.


Thursday, 13 July 2017

Artemis Polymastos



The female breast is portrayed in Christian iconography without any erotic implication, as in images of Maria lactans, the MOTHER of God nursing the baby Jesus. St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1 153) also had a vision in which he was nourished by spiritual MILK from Mary's breast, a gift that could also be distributed to the multitudes of the faithful or be used to refresh the poor souls in purgatory. We occasionally see, as in 15th- through 17th-century representations of the Last Judgment, Mary baring before her son the breasts that had nursed him, in order to make him more lenient, while he himself shows the wounds of his Passion to God the FATHER. 

Amputated breasts on a platter are the attribute of brutally tortured women martyrs, e.g., St. Agatha, who died in Sicily in 251 for her faith. 

In classical antiquity a significantly portrayal of the mother's breast was the famous DIANA of Ephesus, "Artemis polymastos" (many-breasted), the universal mother nursing all of humanity; Macrobius speaks of her as a many-breasted Natura. The recent hypothesis that the grape-like breasts of this Artemis are the testicles of sacrificed BULLS, seems unlikely in view of the classical notion of the primeval mother nursing the world.

Sunday, 9 July 2017

Accession : The Kings of Rome


The Roman Republic, although the accounts of this era are semi-legendary at best, was supposed to have been founded after Tarquinius Superbus was ejected from Rome. His reign was productive in some aspects but was nonetheless filled with abuses, particularly against the senators: he marginalized them by refusing to consult them, and tried to reduce their numbers as best he could. He also became tyrannical in his administration of justice, trying capital cases by himself, without counselors, and using this as a way of stamping out opposition. This was capped off by his son's rape of a virtuous noblewoman named Lucretia, which caused Lucius Junius Brutus (the king's nephew, who had survived in Tarquin's regime by pretending to be slow-witted and thus non-threatening) to vow revenge. He summoned the people and inflamed them against Tarquinius, causing the assembly to strip the king of his imperium, the power of command and punishment that kings enjoyed. After Tarquinius was exiled, the Romans used existing voting procedures to select two magistrates (called praetors at the time, but they'd later be termed consuls, and this is how we know them today) and divided the power of imperium between them, so that no man would concentrate enough power in his own hands to tyrannize the Romans again.

Long story short, Tarquinius and his son were so outrageously oppressive (although reading between the lines, it's hard not to conclude that he pissed off the Senate more than the people generally, and that the revolution was motivated primarily by the aristocrats seeking to restore their position) that they completely soiled the concept of kingship for Romans, and the "Romans are free men, we don't need or want a king, kings are tyrants," message was passed down for centuries, with the result that Romans would be perpetually suspicious of people who accumulated too much power.



CASCA
You pull'd me by the cloak; would you speak with me?

BRUTUS
Ay, Casca; tell us what hath chanced to-day,
That Caesar looks so sad.

CASCA
Why, you were with him, were you not?

BRUTUS
I should not then ask Casca what had chanced.

CASCA
Why, there was a crown offered him: and being
offered him, he put it by with the back of his hand,
thus; and then the people fell a-shouting.

BRUTUS
What was the second noise for?

CASCA
Why, for that too.

CASSIUS
They shouted thrice: what was the last cry for?

CASCA
Why, for that too.

BRUTUS
Was the crown offered him thrice?

CASCA
Ay, marry, was't, and he put it by thrice, every
time gentler than other, and at every putting-by
mine honest neighbours shouted.

CASSIUS
Who offered him the crown?

CASCA
Why, Antony.

BRUTUS
Tell us the manner of it, gentle Casca.

CASCA
I can as well be hanged as tell the manner of it:
it was mere foolery; I did not mark it. I saw Mark
Antony offer him a crown;--yet 'twas not a crown
neither, 'twas one of these coronets;--and, as I told
you, he put it by once: but, for all that, to my
thinking, he would fain have had it. Then he
offered it to him again; then he put it by again:
but, to my thinking, he was very loath to lay his
fingers off it. And then he offered it the third
time; he put it the third time by: and still as he
refused it, the rabblement hooted and clapped their
chapped hands and threw up their sweaty night-caps
and uttered such a deal of stinking breath because
Caesar refused the crown that it had almost choked
Caesar; for he swounded and fell down at it: and
for mine own part, I durst not laugh, for fear of
opening my lips and receiving the bad air.

CASSIUS
But, soft, I pray you: what, did Caesar swound?

CASCA
He fell down in the market-place, and foamed at
mouth, and was speechless.

BRUTUS
'Tis very like: he hath the failing sickness.

CASSIUS
No, Caesar hath it not; but you and I,
And honest Casca, we have the falling sickness.

CASCA
I know not what you mean by that; but, I am sure,
Caesar fell down. If the tag-rag people did not
clap him and hiss him, according as he pleased and
displeased them, as they use to do the players in
Theatre, I am no true man.

BRUTUS
What said he when he came unto himself?

CASCA
Marry, before he fell down, when he perceived the
common herd was glad he refused the crown, he
plucked me ope his doublet and offered them his
throat to cut. An I had been a man of any
occupation, if I would not have taken him at a word,
I would I might go to hell among the rogues. And so
he fell. When he came to himself again, he said,
If he had done or said any thing amiss, he desired
their worships to think it was his infirmity. Three
or four wenches, where I stood, cried 'Alas, good
soul!' and forgave him with all their hearts: but
there's no heed to be taken of them; if Caesar had
stabbed their mothers, they would have done no less.

BRUTUS
And after that, he came, thus sad, away?

CASCA
Ay.

CASSIUS
Did Cicero say any thing?

CASCA
Ay, he spoke Greek.

CASSIUS
To what effect?

CASCA
Nay, an I tell you that, Ill ne'er look you i' the
face again: but those that understood him smiled at
one another and shook their heads; but, for mine own
part, it was Greek to me. I could tell you more
news too: Marullus and Flavius, for pulling scarfs
off Caesar's images, are put to silence. Fare you
well. There was more foolery yet, if I could
remember it.

CASSIUS
Will you sup with me to-night, Casca?

CASCA
No, I am promised forth.

CASSIUS
Will you dine with me to-morrow?

CASCA
Ay, if I be alive and your mind hold and your dinner
worth the eating.

CASSIUS
Good: I will expect you.

CASCA
Do so. Farewell, both.

Exit

BRUTUS
What a blunt fellow is this grown to be!
He was quick mettle when he went to school.

CASSIUS
So is he now in execution
Of any bold or noble enterprise,
However he puts on this tardy form.
This rudeness is a sauce to his good wit,
Which gives men stomach to digest his words
With better appetite.

BRUTUS
And so it is. For this time I will leave you:
To-morrow, if you please to speak with me,
I will come home to you; or, if you will,
Come home to me, and I will wait for you.

CASSIUS
I will do so: till then, think of the world.

Exit BRUTUS

Well, Brutus, thou art noble; yet, I see,
Thy honourable metal may be wrought
From that it is disposed: therefore it is meet
That noble minds keep ever with their likes;
For who so firm that cannot be seduced?
Caesar doth bear me hard; but he loves Brutus:
If I were Brutus now and he were Cassius,
He should not humour me. I will this night,
In several hands, in at his windows throw,
As if they came from several citizens,
Writings all tending to the great opinion
That Rome holds of his name; wherein obscurely
Caesar's ambition shall be glanced at:
And after this let Caesar seat him sure;
For we will shake him, or worse days endure.

Exit







Kings of Rome
For 150 years, a period of time that stretched across the
entire sixth century B . C ., the city of Rome was under
Etruscan control. The conquest of Alba Longa fifteen miles
southeast of Rome was believed to have occurred during
the time of the Etruscan kings.

There were 7 legendary rulers, or Kings, of Rome:

The first king, Romulus, instituted the Senate; the second king, Numa
Pompilius, established priesthoods; the third king, Tullus
Hostilius, expanded Rome’s influence and glory through
war; and the fourth king, Ancus Marcius, established
procedures for declaring war.

The remaining kings ncluded the fifth, Tarquinius Priscus; the sixth, Servius
Tullius; and the seventh, Tarquinius Superbus.

The first Etruscan king, Tarquinius Priscus, was of Greek descent, and he focused on reforming the army.

Priscus also built a temple on the Capitol to honor Jupiter,
Juno, and Minerva. These three deities, known as the
Capitoline Triad, held a supreme place in Roman religion.
Chapter 1 of this text elaborates on the Capitoline Triad
because these deities figure prominently in the historical
myths about the founding of Rome by Aeneas and
Romulus.

The sixth king, Servius Tullius (578–534 B . C .), organized
Roman society by rank and divided the population into
classes. Men who owned property had political power and
could join the military. He also established the earliest and
most important shrine of the Latin deity Diana on the
Aventine Hill. Diana was concerned with the affairs of
women and later became associated with the Greek
goddess Artemis, who was the goddess of the moon and
hunting.

The seventh and last king, Tarquinius Superbus, or
Tarquin the Proud, was not elected legally and was not
well liked because he made the Romans do manual labor
for public works. He was dethroned in 509 B . C . According
to legend, he tried to purchase from the Sibyl at Cumae the
Sibylline Books, a set of nine books that contained all of
19Roman Mythology
Apollo’s prophecies of the world. (A sibyl is a soothsayer or
someone who foretells future events by some sort of
supernatural means; Cumae is a port along the southern
coast of Italy.) Apollo had given the books to the Sibyl and
had offered to grant her anything she desired if she would
marry him. The Sibyl agreed on the one condition that he
grant her as many years of life as grains of sand she could
hold in one hand. After Apollo granted the Sibyl her wish,
she quickly reneged on her promise. Apollo then reminded
the Sibyl that because she had forgotten to ask to remain
ageless, he was going to withhold that gift. The Sibyl of
Cumae lived on as an old woman for more than seven
hundred years, until only her small, weak voice survived to
13
hand down Apollo’s world prophecies.
When Tarquin the Proud asked to purchase the books
from the Sibyl, she agreed to sell them to him—but he
refused to pay her price. So the Sibyl burned three of the
nine books. A year later, the Sibyl offered the king the
remaining six books at the same price. Still, he refused to
pay her price, so she burned three more of the books.
Exasperated, Tarquin the Proud finally agreed to pay the
original price for the remaining three books.
The early Romans did not adapt easily to existing
Etruscan religious practices. The Etruscans followed the
reading of omens by their priests. In these readings, the
priests, or augurs, interpreted for the people the meaning
of messages from the gods, believed to be hidden in the
flight patterns of birds or in the color and consistency of
14
animals’ entrails.
Over the centuries, many Greeks and Carthaginians
came to live in Etruria, and the Etruscans readily embraced
many aspects of their cultures. The Etruscans, in turn,
introduced a civilized and prosperous way of life to the
Romans. Many Greek gods and goddesses were absorbed
20Preface
into the growing body of Roman deities. Jupiter became
the Roman equivalent of Zeus, the Greek king of the gods
(Jupiter even adopted Zeus’ symbols of power—lightning
bolts and peals of thunder); Juno became the Roman
equivalent of Hera, Zeus’ wife; and Venus became the
Roman equivalent of Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of
beauty.

In the beginning, when Roman deities became

identified with Greek gods and goddesses, they did not
interact with humans in Roman myths because the
Romans were not comfortable with the Greek idea of
divine intervention in their stories. Eventually, however,
this attitude changed and humans and divinities began to
interact in Roman myths just as they did in Greek myths.
Mars, Venus, and Apollo are included in Chapter 2
because these deities also play an important part in the
myths about the founding of Rome.








Enter CASSIUS

CASSIUS
Who's there?

CASCA
A Roman.

CASSIUS
Casca, by your voice.

CASCA
Your ear is good. Cassius, what night is this!

CASSIUS
A very pleasing night to honest men.

CASCA
Who ever knew the heavens menace so?

CASSIUS
Those that have known the earth so full of faults.
For my part, I have walk'd about the streets,
Submitting me unto the perilous night,
And, thus unbraced, Casca, as you see,
Have bared my bosom to the thunder-stone;
And when the cross blue lightning seem'd to open
The breast of heaven, I did present myself
Even in the aim and very flash of it.

CASCA
But wherefore did you so much tempt the heavens?
It is the part of men to fear and tremble,
When the most mighty gods by tokens send
Such dreadful heralds to astonish us.

CASSIUS
You are dull, Casca, and those sparks of life
That should be in a Roman you do want,
Or else you use not. You look pale and gaze
And put on fear and cast yourself in wonder,
To see the strange impatience of the heavens:
But if you would consider the true cause
Why all these fires, why all these gliding ghosts,
Why birds and beasts from quality and kind,
Why old men fool and children calculate,
Why all these things change from their ordinance
Their natures and preformed faculties
To monstrous quality,--why, you shall find
That heaven hath infused them with these spirits,
To make them instruments of fear and warning
Unto some monstrous state.
Now could I, Casca, name to thee a man
Most like this dreadful night,
That thunders, lightens, opens graves, and roars
As doth the lion in the Capitol,
A man no mightier than thyself or me
In personal action, yet prodigious grown
And fearful, as these strange eruptions are.

CASCA
'Tis Caesar that you mean; is it not, Cassius?

CASSIUS
Let it be who it is: for Romans now
Have thews and limbs like to their ancestors;
But, woe the while! our fathers' minds are dead,
And we are govern'd with our mothers' spirits;
Our yoke and sufferance show us womanish.

CASCA
Indeed, they say the senators tomorrow
Mean to establish Caesar as a king;
And he shall wear his crown by sea and land,
In every place, save here in Italy.

CASSIUS
I know where I will wear this dagger then;
Cassius from bondage will deliver Cassius:
Therein, ye gods, you make the weak most strong;
Therein, ye gods, you tyrants do defeat:
Nor stony tower, nor walls of beaten brass,
Nor airless dungeon, nor strong links of iron,
Can be retentive to the strength of spirit;
But life, being weary of these worldly bars,
Never lacks power to dismiss itself.
If I know this, know all the world besides,
That part of tyranny that I do bear
I can shake off at pleasure.

Thunder still

CASCA
So can I:
So every bondman in his own hand bears
The power to cancel his captivity.

CASSIUS
And why should Caesar be a tyrant then?
Poor man! I know he would not be a wolf,
But that he sees the Romans are but sheep:
He were no lion, were not Romans hinds.
Those that with haste will make a mighty fire
Begin it with weak straws: what trash is Rome,
What rubbish and what offal, when it serves
For the base matter to illuminate
So vile a thing as Caesar! But, O grief,
Where hast thou led me? I perhaps speak this
Before a willing bondman; then I know
My answer must be made. But I am arm'd,
And dangers are to me indifferent.

CASCA
You speak to Casca, and to such a man
That is no fleering tell-tale. Hold, my hand:
Be factious for redress of all these griefs,
And I will set this foot of mine as far
As who goes farthest.

CASSIUS
There's a bargain made.
Now know you, Casca, I have moved already
Some certain of the noblest-minded Romans
To undergo with me an enterprise
Of honourable-dangerous consequence;
And I do know, by this, they stay for me
In Pompey's porch: for now, this fearful night,
There is no stir or walking in the streets;
And the complexion of the element
In favour's like the work we have in hand,
Most bloody, fiery, and most terrible.

CASCA
Stand close awhile, for here comes one in haste.

CASSIUS
'Tis Cinna; I do know him by his gait;
He is a friend.

Enter CINNA

Cinna, where haste you so?

CINNA
To find out you. Who's that? Metellus Cimber?

CASSIUS
No, it is Casca; one incorporate
To our attempts. Am I not stay'd for, Cinna?

CINNA
I am glad on 't. What a fearful night is this!
There's two or three of us have seen strange sights.

CASSIUS
Am I not stay'd for? tell me.

CINNA
Yes, you are.
O Cassius, if you could
But win the noble Brutus to our party--

CASSIUS
Be you content: good Cinna, take this paper,
And look you lay it in the praetor's chair,
Where Brutus may but find it; and throw this
In at his window; set this up with wax
Upon old Brutus' statue: all this done,
Repair to Pompey's porch, where you shall find us.
Is Decius Brutus and Trebonius there?

CINNA
All but Metellus Cimber; and he's gone
To seek you at your house. Well, I will hie,
And so bestow these papers as you bade me.

CASSIUS
That done, repair to Pompey's theatre.

Exit CINNA

Come, Casca, you and I will yet ere day
See Brutus at his house: three parts of him
Is ours already, and the man entire
Upon the next encounter yields him ours.

CASCA
O, he sits high in all the people's hearts:
And that which would appear offence in us,
His countenance, like richest alchemy,
Will change to virtue and to worthiness.

CASSIUS
Him and his worth and our great need of him
You have right well conceited. Let us go,
For it is after midnight; and ere day
We will awake him and be sure of him.

Exeunt